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英语辅导报大学版:英语副词的分类及其用法  

2012-03-21 22:39:03|  分类: English |  标签: |举报 |字号 订阅

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英语辅导报大学版:英语副词的分类及其用法
http://www.sina.com.cn 2004/07/26 13:06 英语辅导报

英语副词是对动词、形容词、其他副词或者一个句子起描述作用,或者对其意义作进一步说明的词.英语副词根据其句法功能可分为附加语(adjunct)、联加语(conjunct)和外加语(disjunct).各类副词在句中的位置各不相同,变换其词序会使句子的含义产生变化.下面笔者对副词的用法进行分类说明.

  一、 附加语

  附加语为分句或句子基本结构的一部分,在分句或句子中修饰动词、形容词或其他副词,表示时间、地点、频率、程度或方式.如:

  (1) I have almost finished. 我已经差不多完成了。

  (2) I think she'll be married shortly. 我想她不久就会结婚的。

  (3) He was a deeply sick man. 他病得相当严重。

  (4) He did really well, didn't he? 他做得相当好,不是吗?

  附加语还可细分为两类:主语附加语(subject adjunct)和方式附加语(manner adjunct)。如:

  (5) You stupidly answered his questions. ( stupidly 是主语附加语.这句话的含义相当于:It was stupid of you to answer his questions. 或 You were stupid to answer his questions.)

  (6) You answered his questions stupidly. (stupidly是方式附加语.这句话的含义相当于:You answered his questions in that stupid way.)

  附加语可以放在被修饰词的前面或句末,附加语的位置不同其含义也不同。试比较下列各组句子:

  (7) We have solved practically all these problems. 这些问题我们差不多已全部解决了。

  We have solved all these problems practically. 我们以切实可行的方法把全部问题解决了。

  (8) We heard only of it this morning. 今天早上我们只听见这件事。

  We only heard of it this morning. 我们今天早上只是听说这件事。

  We heard of it only this morning. 我们只是在今天早上才听说这件事。

  二、联加语

  联加语不属于分句或句子的基本结构,只是用来表明含该联加语的句子与其他句子的关系。如:

  (9) Altogether, it was a happy week. 总的说来,这星期是开心的。

  (10) It rained; therefore, the match was postponed.因为下雨,所以比赛延期了。

  大家都知道,定语从句中的关系代词that与which在指物时,往往是可以互换的,但在下列几种情况下却多用关系代词that,而不能用which.

  1. 当先行词为all, little, much, few, everything, none 等不定代词时,关系代词用that而不用which.例如:

  All that glitters is not gold.

  There are few books that you can read in this book store.

  2. 当先行词既有人又有物时,关系代词用that, 不用which.例如:

  He asked about the factories and workers that he had visited.

  3. 当先行词有形容词最高级修饰时,关系代词用that, 而不用which.例如:

  It was the largest map that I ever saw.

  Hangzhou is one of the most beautiful cities that I have ever visited.

  4. 当先行词有序数词修饰时,关系代词用that, 不用which.例如:

  The first sight that was caught at the Great Wall has made a lasting impression on him.

  5. 当先行词被the only, the very, the same, the right等修饰时,关系代词用that,不用which.例如:

  That is the very thing that we can do. It is the only book that he bought himself.

  6. 当先行词被all, every, any, much, little, few, no等修饰时,关系代词用that,不用which.例如:

  You can take any book that you like.

  7. 当主句是以which开头的特殊问句时,为了避免重复,定语从句的关系代词一般用that,而不用which.例如:

  Which was the hotel that was recommended to you?

  8. 在强调句型" It is ... that ..."中, 只能用that,不能用which.例如:

  It was liberation that brought about a complete change in his life.

  9. 在"such (the same) ... as ..."句型中,关系代词要用as, 而不用which.例如:

  We need such materials as (not which) can bear high temperature.

  10. as引导的定语从句可以放在主句前面, 也可以放在主句后面或主句中间,而由 which引导的定语从句只能放在主句后面.例如:

  As we all know, oceans cover more than 70% of the earth.

  (文/陈昌勇 英语辅导报大学一年级版03~04学年第41期;版权归英语辅导报社所有,独家网络合作伙伴新浪教育,未经许可,不得以任何形式进行转载。)

副词及其基本用法
  副词主要用来修饰动词,形容词,副词或其他结构。

一、副词的位置:

1) 在动词之前。

2) 在be动词、助动词之后。 

3) 多个助动词时,副词一般放在第一个助动词后。

注意:
  a. 大多数方式副词位于句尾,但宾语过长,副词可以提前,以使句子平衡。
   We could see very clearly a strange light ahead of us.

  b. 方式副词well,badly糟、坏,hard等只放在句尾。
   He speaks English well.

二、副词的排列顺序:

1) 时间,地点副词,小单位的在前,大单位在后。

2) 方式副词,短的在前,长的在后,并用and或but等连词连接。
    Please write slowly and carefully.

3) 多个不同副词排列:程度+地点+方式+时间副词。

注意:副词very 可以修饰形容词,但不能修饰动词。
  改错:(错) I very like English.
     (对) I like English very much.

注意:副词enough要放在形容词的后面,形容词enough放在名词前后都可。
     I don’t know him well enough.
     There is enough food for everyone to eat.
     There is food enough for everyone to eat.

副词是一种用来修饰动词,形容词,副词或全句的词,说明时间,地点,程度,方式等概念。
分 类:
1) 时间和频度副词:
now,then,often,always,usually,early,today, lately, next,last,already,generally,frequently, seldom,ever,never,yet,soon,too, immediately, hardly,finally,shortly, before, ago,sometimes, yesterday.
2) 地点副词:
here, there, everywhere, anywhere, in, out, inside, outside, above, below, down, back, forward, home, upstairs, downstairs, across, along, round , around, near, off, past, up, away, on.
3) 方式副词:
carefully, properly, anxiously, suddenly, normally, fast, well, calmly, politely, proudly, softly, warmly
4) 程度副词:
much,little, very,rather,so,too,still, quite, perfectly, enough, extremely, entirely,almost, slightly.
5) 疑问副词:
how, when, where, why.
6) 关系副词:
when, where, why.
7) 连接副词:
how, when, where, why, whether.
用 法:
副词在句中可作状语,表语,短语。
He works hard.
他工作努力。
You speak English quite well.
你英语讲的很好。
Is she in ?
她在家吗?
Let's be out.
让我们出去吧。
Food here is hard to get.
这儿很难弄到食物。
位 置:
1) 多数副词都可以放在动词的后面,如果动词带有宾语,副词就放在宾语后面。
I get up early in the morning everyday.
我每天早早起床。
He gave me a gift yesterday.
他昨天给了我一件礼物。
She didn't drink water enough.
她没喝够水。
The train goes fast.
火车跑得快。
We can go to this school freely.
我们可以免费到这家学校学习。
They left a life hardly then.
当时他们的生活很艰难。
He has a new hat on today.
他今天戴了一顶新帽子。
I have seen this film twice with my friends.
这部电影我和朋友看过两次。
2) 副词修饰形容词,副词时,副词在前面,而被修饰的词在后面。
It's rather easy, I can do it.
这很容易,我能做到。
He did it quite well.
他做得相当好。
It's rather difficult to tell who is right.
很难说谁是对的。
It's so important that I must tell my friends.
这件事太重要了,我得告诉我的朋友。
It's much better.
好多了。
3) 频度副词可放在实义动词的前面,情态动词和助动词的后面。
I often help him these days.
这些日子我经常帮助他。
I always remember the day when I first came
to this school.
我常常记得我第一次来学校的那一天。
You mustn't always help me.
你不能老是帮助我。
He seldom comes to see us.
他很少来看我们。
We usually go shopping once a week.
我们通常一周买一次东西。
The new students don't always go to dance.
新学生并不时常去跳舞。
4) 疑问副词,连接副词,关系副词以及修饰整个句子的副词,通常放在句子或从句的前面。
When do you study everyday?
你每天什么时间学习?
Can you tell me how you did it?
你能告诉我你如何做的吗?
First, let me ask you some questions.
先让我来问几个问题。
How much does this bike cost?
这辆车子多少钱?
Either you go or he comes.
不是你去就是他来。
The students were reading when the teacher came into the classroom.
当老师进教室时,学生们正在读书。
5) 时间副词和地点副词在一个句中, 地点副词在前面时间副词在后面。
We went shopping in the supermarket at 9 o'clock yesterday.
昨天九点钟我们到超市买东西了.
What were you doing in the classroom yesterday afternoon?
昨天下午你在教室里干什么?
The accident took place in the Eleven Avenue one hour ago.
一小时前十一号大街发生了一场事故。
比较等级:
副词和形容词一样,也有它的比较级和最高级形式. 可以参考形容词的变换形式。但以词尾 -ly 结尾的副词(除 early )须用 more 和 most 。
hard harder hardest
fast faster fastest
early earlier earliest
much more most
warmly more warmly most warmly
单音节副词的比较级是在副词后面加上 -er 构成的,最高级是在副词后面加上 -est 构成的。
near nearer nearest
hard harder hardest
多音节副词的比较级是在副词的前面加上 -more 构成的。 最高级是在副词前面加上 -most 构成的。
warmly more warmly most warmly
successfully more successfully most successfully
有些副词的比较级和最高级形式是不规则的。
well-better - best little - less - least
Much- more - most badly - worse - worst
far-farther(further)-farthest(furthest)
副词的比较级和最高级用法同形容词的比较级用法基本一样。 最高级形式句中 the 可以省略。
He works harder than I.
他比我工作努力。
Lucy gets up earlier than Lili.
露西比丽丽起床早。
He runs fastest in our class.
他在我们班跑地最快。
He dives deeper than his teammates.
他比他的队员潜水深。
It's true that he speak English more fluently than any of us.
他英语讲的确实比我们任何人都好。
Our school team play football best in our region.
我们校队在我们地区足球踢得最好的。
刚才认真的考虑了一下,方位副词可以放在名字的后面表示一个短语,副词在这个短语起到定语的作用。除了这个之外,在句子里,副词很少能够修饰名词的。
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2011-7-5 14:48 变形金刚BXJGAA ik.qb.data.add('user','ff56b1e4d0cebdf0b8d542584a474141f60f','http://img.baidu.com/img/iknow/avarta/66/r6s1g2.gif'); | 二级
形容词和副词   4.1 形容词及其用法    形容词修饰名词,说明事物或人的性质或特征。通常,可将形容词分成性质形容词和叙述形容词两类,其位置不一定都放在名词前面。  1)直接说明事物的性质或特征的形容词是性质形容词,它有级的变化,可以用程度副词修饰,在句中可作定语、表语和补语。例如:hot。  2)叙述形容词只能作表语,所以又称为表语形容词。这类形容词没有级的变化,也不可用程度副词修饰。大多数以a开头的形容词都属于这一类。例如:afraid 害怕的。     (错) He is an ill man.     (对) The man is ill.     (错) She is an afraid girl.     (对) The girl is afraid.     这类词还有: well,unwell,ill,faint,afraid,alike,alive,alone,asleep,awake 等。  3)形容词作定语修饰名词时,要放在名词的前边。但是如果形容词修饰以-thing为字尾的词语时,要放在这些词之后。例如:something nice.       4.2 以-ly结尾的形容词   1) 大部分形容词加-ly可构成副词。但 friendly,deadly,lovely,lonely,likely,lively,ugly,brotherly,仍为形容词。    改错: (错) She sang lovely.      (错) He spoke to me very friendly.      (对) Her singing was lovely.      (对) He spoke to me in a very friendly way.  2)有些以-ly 结尾既为形容词,也为副词,如daily,weekly,monthly,yearly,early等。例如:     The Times is a weekly paper. 《时代周刊》为周刊。     The Times is published weekly. 《时代周刊》每周发行一期。    4.3 用形容词表示类别和整体   1) 某些形容词加上定冠词可以泛指一类人,与谓语动词的复数连接,如the dead,the living,the rich,the poor,the blind,the hungry等。例如:     The poor are losing hope. 穷人行将失去希望。  2) 有关国家和民族的形容词加上定冠词指这个民族的整体,与动词的复数连用,如the British,the English,the French,the Chinese等。例如:     The English have wonderful sense of humor. 英国人颇有幽默感。    4.4 多个形容词修饰名词的顺序   多个形容词修饰名词时,其顺序为:限定词--数词--描绘词--(大小,长短,形状,新旧,颜色)--出处--材料性质--类别--名词。例如:     a small round table/ a tall gray building/ a dirty old brown shirt/ a famous German medical school/ an expensive Japanese sports car   典型例题:  1) Tony is going camping with ___ boys.     A. little two other B. two little other  C. two other little  D. little other two    答案:C。由"限定词--数词--描绘词--(大小,长短,形状,新旧,颜色) --性质--名词"的顺序可知数词,描绘词,性质依次顺序,只有C符合答案。  2) One day they crossed the ____bridge behind the palace.    A. old Chinese stone B. Chinese old stone C. old stone Chinese D. Chinese stone old    答案A. 几个形容词修饰一个名词,他们的排列顺序是:年龄,形状,大小+颜色+来源+质地+用途+国家+名词。  3) ---- How was your recent visit to Qingdao?    ---- It was great. We visited some friends,and spent the ___days at the seaside.    A. few last sunny  B. last few sunny  C. last sunny few  D. few sunny last  答案:B。本题考查多个形容词的排序问题。一般与被修饰形容词关系密切的形容词靠近名词;如果几个形容词的重要性差不多,音节少的形容词在前,音节多的方在后,在不能确定时,可参照:限定词+数量词(序数词在前,基数词在后)+性状形容词+大小、长短、高低等形体+新旧+颜色+国籍+材料+名词,如those + three + beautiful + large + square +old + brown + wood + table。    4.5 副词及其基本用法     副词主要用来修饰动词,形容词,副词或其他结构。  一、副词的位置  1) 在动词之前。  2) 在be动词、助动词之后。    3) 多个助动词时,副词一般放在第一个助动词后。  注意:    a. 大多数方式副词位于句尾,但宾语过长,副词可以提前,以使句子平衡。例如:      We could see very clearly a strange light ahead of us.我们清楚地看到前面有奇怪的光。    b. 方式副词well,badly,hard等只放在句尾。例如:     He speaks English well. 他英语说得好。  二、副词的排列顺序:  1) 时间,地点副词,小单位的在前,大单位在后。  2) 方式副词,短的在前,长的在后,并用and或but等连词连接。例如:      Please write slowly and carefully. 请写得慢一些,仔细一些  3) 多个不同副词排列:程度+地点+方式+时间副词。  注意:副词very 可以修饰形容词,但不能修饰动词。    改错:(错) I very like English.       (对) I like English very much.  注意:副词enough要放在形容词的后面,形容词enough放在名词前后都可。例如:       I don't know him well enough. 他我不熟悉。       There is enough food for everyone to eat.有足够的食物供每个人吃。       There is food enough for everyone to eat.    4.6 兼有两种形式的副词   1) close与closely    close意思是"近";closely 意思是"仔细地"。例如:      He is sitting close to me. 他就坐在我边上。      Watch him closely. 盯着他。  2) late 与lately     late意思是"晚";lately 意思是"最近"。例如:      You have come too late. 你来得太晚了。      What have you been doing lately? 近来好吗?  3) deep与deeply     deep意思是"深",表示空间深度;deeply时常表示感情上的深度,"深深地"。例如:      He pushed the stick deep into the mud.他把棍子深深插进泥里。      Even father was deeply moved by the film.老爸也被电影深深打动了。  4) high与highly     high表示空间高度;highly表示程度,相当于much。例如:      The plane was flying high. 这架飞机飞得很高。      I think highly of your opinion. 你的看法很有道理。  5) wide与widely     wide表示空间宽度;widely意思是"广泛地","在许多地方"。例如:      He opened the door wide. 他把门开得大大的。      English is widely used in the world.英语在世界范围内广泛使用。  6) free与freely     free的意思是"免费";freely 的意思是"无限制地"。例如:      You can eat free in my restaurant whenever you like.无论什么时候,我这饭铺免费对你开放。      You may speak freely; say what you like.你可以畅所欲言,想说什么就说什么。    4.7 形容词与副词的比较级    大多数形容词(性质形容词)和副词有比较级和最高级的变化,即原级、比较级和最高级,用来表示事物的等级差别。原级即形容词的原形,比较级和最高级有规则变化和不规则变化两种。  1) 规则变化    单音节词和少数双音节词,加词尾-er,-est来构成比较级和最高级。    构成法 原级 比较级 最高级   一般单音节词未尾加-er,-est tall taller tallest   以不发音的e结尾的单音词和少数以- le结尾的双音节词只加-r,-st nice nicer nicest   以一个辅音字母结尾的闭音节单音节词,双写结尾的辅音字母,再加-er,-est big bigger biggest   "以辅音字母+y"结尾的双音节词,改y为i,再加-er,-est    busy busier busiest   少数以-er,-ow结尾的双音节词未尾加-er,-est clever/narrow cleverer/ narrower cleverest/ narrowest   其他双音节词和多音节词,在前面加more,most来构成比较级和最高级 important/ easily more important/ more easily most important/ most easily     2) 不规则变化    原级 比较级 最高级   good better best   well(健康的)   bad   ill(有病的)   old older/elder oldest/eldest   much/many more most   little less least   far farther/further farthest/furthest     4.8. as + 形容词或副词原级 + as   1)在否定句或疑问句中可用so… as。例如:     He cannot run so/as fast as you. 他没你跑得快。  2)当as… as 中间有名词时采用以下格式:as +形容词+ a +单数名词/ as + many/much +名词。例如:     This is as good an example as the other is. 这个例子和另外一个一样好。     I can carry as much paper as you can. 你能搬多少纸,我也能。  3)用表示倍数的词或其他程度副词做修饰语时,放在as的前面。例如:     This room is twice as big as that one. 这房间的面积是那间的两倍。     Your room is the same size as mine. 你的房间和我的一样大。  4)倍数+ as + adj. + as <=> 倍数+ the … + of。例如:     This bridge is three times as long as that one. 这座桥的长度是那座的三倍。     This bridge is three times the length of that one.     Your room is twice as large as mine. 你的房间是我的两倍大。     Your room is twice the size of mine.    4.9 比较级形容词或副词 + than 。例如:      You are taller than I. 你比我高。      They lights in your room are brighter than those in mine.你房间的那些灯比我房间里的亮。  注意:   1)要避免重复使用比较级。     (错) He is more cleverer than his brother.     (对) He is more clever than his brother.     (对) He is clever than his brother.  2)要避免将主语含在比较对象中。     (错) China is larger than any country in Asia.     (对) China is larger than any other countries in Asia.  3)要注意对应句型,遵循前后一致的原则。      The population of Shanghai is larger than that of Beijing.      It is easier to make a plan than to carry it out.  4)要注意定冠词在比较级中的使用。    比较:Which is larger, Canada or Australia?       Which is the larger country, Canada or Australia?       She is taller than her two sisters.       She is the taller of the two sisters.    4.10 可修饰比较级的词   1)a bit, a little, rather, much, far, by far, many, a lot, lots, a great deal, any, still, even等。  2)还可以用表示倍数的词或度量名词作修饰语。  3)以上词(除by far)外,必须置于比较级形容词或副词的前面。  典型例题:  1)---- Are you feeling ____?       ---- Yes,I'm fine now.    A. any well B. any better C. quite good D. quite better    答案:B. any 可修饰比较级,quite修饰原级,well的比较级为better.   2)The experiment was____ easier than we had expected.      A. more  B. much more   C. much    D. more much  答案:C. much可修饰比较级,因此B,C都说得通,但easier本身已是比较级,不需more,因此C为正确答案。  3)If there were no examinations, we should have ___ at school.   A. the happiest time  B. a more happier time C. much happiest time  D. a much happier time  答案:D。  OK 


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