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英语代词的所有用法/限制性与非限制性定语从句区别  

2013-02-12 14:37:44|  分类: English |  标签: |举报 |字号 订阅

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英语代词的所有用法/限制性与非限制性定语从句区别

A.英语代词的所有用法

关系代词who,whom,whose,that,which的用法

(1) 关系代词who,whom,whose,that,which的用法

  英语中的关系代词有who,whom,whose,that,which,它们是用来引导定语从句的。关系代词既代表定语从句所修饰的词,又在其所引导的从句中承担一个成分, 如主语、宾语、表语或定语。如:
This is the man who saved your son.
这就是救了你儿子的那个人。(who在从句中作主语,先行词是man)
The man whom I met yesterday is Jim.
我昨天见到的那个人是吉姆。(whom在从句中作宾语,它的先行词是man)
A child whose parents are dead is an orphan.
失去父母的孩子是孤儿。(whose在从句中作定语,它的先行词是child)
He wants a room whose window looks out over the sea.
他想要个窗户面临大海的房间。(whose在从句中作定语,它的先行词是room)

[1] who,whom和whose
  who和whom代表人,在从句中作主语时用who,作宾语时用whom,可省略。但若whom作介词宾语且介词放在其前时,不能省略;如介词位于句末时,可以省略。whose代表某人的,在从句中作定语。如:
The man who insists upon seeing with perfect clearness before he decides, never decides.
坚持看清楚一切后才做决定的人永远也做不了决定。(who作主语)
He is a man whom everybody respects.
他是一个人人都尊敬的人。(whom作宾语,可以省略)
He is a man fromwhom we all should learn.
他是我们大家都应该学习的人。 (whom作介词宾语且介词位于其前,不能省略)
(此句也可以是:He is a man (whom) we should all learn from.)
The people whose houses were damaged will be compensated.
房子被损坏了的人将给予补偿。
Who, whom和whose可用于非限制性定语从句中,代表某人或某人的,此时不能用that。如:
My sister, who is a nurse, came home for a few days.
我姐姐回家住了几天,她是个护士。

[2] which
  which代表物,在从句中可作主语或宾语,作宾语时可以省略,但作介词宾语且介词位于其前时不能省略。如:
The book which helps you most are those which make you think most.
最能使你获益的书是那些最能让你深思的书。(作主语)
This is a factor which we must not neglect.
这是一个我们绝不能忽略的因素。(作宾语,可省略)
Where is the book from which you quoted this sentence?
你引用这句话的那本书在哪儿?(作介词宾语且介词位于其前时,不能省略)
  which可用于非限制性定语从句中,代表物。如:
The book, which I bought second-hand, is made of oak.
我买的这张书桌是用橡木做的,它是二手货。

[3] that
  that可以代表事也可代表人,在从句中可以作主语或宾语,作宾语时可省略,但不能用于非限制性定语从句中。代表人时who比that用的多些,代表物时that比which用的多些。如:
The letter that came this morning is from my mother.
今天早晨收到的那封信是我母亲寄来的。(that代表物,在从句中作主语)
Those students that failed the exam will have to take it again.
考试不及格的学生必须补考。(that代表人,在从句中作主语)
Have you forgotten about the money (that) I lent you last week?
你忘了上星期我借给你钱的事了吗?(that代表物,在从句中作宾语,可省略)
All the people (that) I invited have agreed to come.
所有我邀请了的人都同意来。(that代表人,在从句中作宾语,可省略)
The hotel (that) we stayed at was both cheap and comfortable.
我们住的那家旅馆既便宜又舒服。(that代表物,在从句中作介词宾语,可省略)

(2) 补充说明

  下列情况下,定语从句的关系代词只能用that,不能用which或who

[1] 当先行词中有形容词的最高级时。如:
Shakespeare is the greatest poet that English has ever had.
莎士比亚是英国所拥有的最伟大的诗人。
Is this the best that you can do? 你最多只能做到这样吗?

[2] 当先行词为代词all, anything, everything, little, much, nobody, nothing时。如:
Anyone that wants to succeed must work hard. 任何想要获得成功的人必须努力工作。

[3] 当先行词中有含有any, every, no, only, the first, the last, the same时。如:
You are the only person that can help me. 你是唯一能帮助我的人。
Take the first chance that offers. 抓住出现的第一个机会。

(3) 没有先行词的关系代词

  如果关系代词引导的从句不是作定语修饰先行词而是充当句子成分,这种关系代词就没有先行词,它只起连接作用。这种关系代词有:what, whatever, whoever, whichever, wherever等。如:
What woke me up was a splashing noise.
把我吵醒的是一阵溅水的声音。(what从句作主语)
I don't know what good they could have done.
我不知道他们能起什么好作用。(what从句作宾语)
Whoever breaks the law is punished in the end.
违法者终将被惩罚。(whoever引导的从句作主语)

B.限制性与非限制性定语从句区别

    一、在句中作用不同
    限制性定语从句对被修饰的先行词有限定制约作用,使该词的含义更具体,更明确。限制性定语从句不能被省略,否则句意就不完整。
    非限制性定语从句与先行词关系不十分密切,只是对其作一些附加说明,不起限定制约作用。如果将非限制性定语从句省去,主句的意义仍然完整。
    二、外在表现形式不同
    限制性定语从句因与先行词关系密切,所以不可以用逗号将其与主句隔开;而非限制性定语从句与先行词关系不十分密切,所以可用逗号将其与主句隔开。
    例 1. Do you remember the girl who taught us English?
    你还记得教我们英语的那个女孩吗?
    例 2. Clock is a kind of instrument which can tell people time.
    钟是一种能够告诉人们时间的仪器。
    例 3. This is the place where he used to live.
    这就是他过去居住的地方。
    例 4. Mr. Zhang, who came to see me yesterday, is an old friend of mine.
    张先生昨天来看我,他是我的一位朋友。
    例 5. We walked down the village street, where they were having market day.
    我们沿着村里的大街向前走去,村民们正在那里赶集。
    析:在前三个例句中,定语从句与先行词关系密切,为限制性定语从句,不可用逗号将其与主句隔开。在后两个例句中,定语从句与先行词关系不密切,为非限制性定语从句,可用逗号将其与主句隔开。
    三、先行词内容有所不同
    大多数限制性和非限制性定语从句的先行词往往为某一个词或短语,而特殊情况下非限制性定语从句的先行词也可为整个主句,此时非限制性定语从句常由 which 引导。
    例 1. A middle-aged woman killed her husband, which frightened me very much.
    一个中年女子杀害了自己的丈夫,这令我十分恐惧。
    析:由语境可知,令“我”恐惧的内容应为“中年女子杀害了自己的丈夫”这整个一件事,因此先行词为整个主句,此时应由 which 引导定语从句。
    例 2. A five-year-old boy can speak two foreign languages, which surprises all the people present.
    一个五岁男孩会讲两门外语,这令所有在场的人感到非常惊讶。
    析:由语境可知,令所有在场的人感到惊讶的内容是“一个五岁男孩会讲两门外语”这整个一件事,因此先行词为整个主句,此时应由 which 引导非限制性定语从句。
    四、关系词的使用情况有所不同
    (一) that 不可用于引导非限制性定语从句
    所有关系代词和关系副词均可引导限制性定语从句,大多数关系代词和关系副词可引导非限制性定语从句,但 that 不可。
    例 1. 他送给他母亲一台彩电作为生日礼物,这使她非常高兴。
    误: He gave his mother a color TV set for her birthday, that pleased her a lot.
    正: He gave his mother a color TV set for her birthday, which pleased her a lot.
    例 2. 他没通过这次考试,令我很失望。
    误: He didn't pass the exam, that disappointed me.
    正: He didn't pass the exam, which disappointed me.
    值得注意的是,不少同学误认为只有 which 才能引导非限制性定语从句,这个观点是不正确的。使用非限制性定语从句时,如果先行词指人,则用 who , which 或 whose 引导非限制性定语从句;先行词指物可用 which 引导非限制性定语从句;先行词表时间或地点且在从句中作时间状语或地点状语时,可用 when , where 引导非限制性定语从句。
    例 1. We'll graduate in July, when we will be free.
    我们将于七月份毕业,到那时我们就自由了。
    例 2. Last Sunday they reached Nanjing, where a conference was to be held.
    他们上周日到达南京,有个会议要在那里举行。
    (二)关系代词替代情况不同
    关系代词 whom 在限制性定语从句中作宾语时可用 who 代替 whom ,但 whom 在非限制性定语从句中作宾语时不可用 who 来代替。
    例 1. This is the girl whom I met in the street.
    这是我在街上遇到的那个女孩。
    析:先行词 the girl 在限制性定语从句中作宾语,可用 who 代替 whom .
    例 2. A young man had a new girl friend, whom he wanted to impress.
    一个年轻的小伙子新交了一个女朋友,他想给她留下深刻的印象。
    析:先行词 a new girl friend 在非限制性定语从句中作宾语,不可用 who 代替 whom .
    在限制性定语从句中,先行词指人时可用 that 代替 who/ whom ,但在非限制性定语从句中先行词指人时,不可用 that 代替 who/whom .
    例:她有一个姐姐,她是教师
    误: She has a sister, that is a teacher.
    正: She has a sister, who is teacher.
    (三)关系代词省略情况不同
    关系代词在限制性定语从句中作宾语时可以省去,非限制性定语从句的所有关系词均不可省。
    例 1. This is the book (which/that) he lost yesterday.
    这就是他昨天丢的那本书。
    析:先行词 the book 在限制性定语从句中作宾语,关系代词 which 或 that 可以省略。
    例 2. The book, which he lost yesterday, has been found.
    他昨天丢了这本书,但现在已找到了。
    析:先行词 the book 在非限制性定语从句中作宾语,关系代词 which 不可省。
    [实战演练]
    1. She heard a terrible noise, _________ brought her heart into her mouth.
    A. it B. which C. this D. that
    2. Have you ever been to Xi'an, _________ I left ten years ago.
    A. which B. whose C. that D. /
    3. The weather turned out to be very good, _________ was more than we could expect.
    A. what B. which C. that D. it
    4. His English, ________ used to be very poor is now excellent.
    A. which B. that C. it D . whom
    5. Some of the roads were flooded, __________ makes o
    ur journey more difficult.
    A. that B. it C. which D. who
    6. I'll find a nice girl, _________ I want to marry.
    A. who B. whom C. that D. which
    7. I'll come at ten, ________ I'll be free.
    A. which B. that C. when D. what
    8. She has two brothers, _________ are teachers.
    A. who B. that C. whom D. /
    9. Which answer is NOT true?
    This is the factory ________ I visited yesterday.
    A. that B. which C. / D. where
    10. I still remember the days _________ I spent in Beijing.
    A. when B. what C. that D. during
    Key:
    1. B 2. A 3. B 4. A 5. C
    6. B 7. C 8. A 9. D 10. C

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