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什么情况下that不可省略  

2013-02-21 17:45:22|  分类: English |  标签: |举报 |字号 订阅

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什么情况下that不可省略

 

that在英语中是一个使用频率很高的词。它可用作代词、连词、关系代词等,有时可以省略。但在以下几种情况下that不可省略,使用时尤其需注意。
  一、that用作代词,指上文提到的人或事物(单数名词),且需一个后置定语来修饰,此时that不可省
  Their cotton output of1997 was double than that of1 987.
  Mary’s handwriting is far better than that of Peter .
  二、that用作连词,在so...that,such。。。that,in order thar等引导的状语从句中,that不可省。
  They started so early that they might arrive in tim e.
  It is such a heavy box that nobody can move it.
  He worked hard in order that he might catch up with the others.
  三、that用作连词,引导主语从句时,当它放在主句谓语动词之前时,that不可省。
  That he came late made his teacher angry.
  That she was chosen made us very happy.
  如用it作形式主语,把从句置于谓语动词之后时,that可以省略。例如:
  It is a pity(that) he has made such a mistake.
  It is obvious(that) he is right.
  四、that用作连词,引导表语从句和同位语从句时,that不可省。
  The news that our team has won the match is true.
  My idea is that we should get more comrades to do t he work.
  五、that用作连词,引导宾语从句时,如主句的谓语动词是及物动词make,find,see等时,且后有宾语补足语时,that引导的从句可置于宾语补足语之后,用it作形式宾语,此时that不可省。
  We find it necessary that he will succeed.
  He made it clear that he was not interested in this subject.
  六、that用作关系代词,引导定语从句时,当它作为从句的主语时,that不可省。
  All that have to do is to practise every day.
  That’s the same man that asked me for money yesterd ay.
  但如that作从句的宾语时


省略、插入语讲解及练习

作者:林世生 来源:本站原创 更新时间:2006-04-30 点击数:1716


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省略和插入语

 

省略

为了使讲话和行文简洁,句中某些成分有时可省略。省略可分以下几种情况:

(一)简单句中的省略

       1、省略主语:祈使句中主语通常省略。其它省略主语多限于少数现成的说法。

       e.g. (I) Thank you for your help.(括号内为省略的词语,下同)

              (I) see you tomorrow.                  (It) Doesn’t matter.

       2、省略主谓语或主谓语的一部分。

       e.g. (There is) No smoking.   (Is there) Anything wrong?    Why (do you) not say hello to him?

       3、省略作宾语的不定式短语,只保留to。

       e.g. ---- Are you going there?        ---- I’d like to (go there).

              He did not give me the chance, though he had promised to (give me the chance).

       注意:如果该宾语是be动词或完成时态,则须在to之后加上be或have。

       e.g. ---- Are you an engineer?                     ---- No, but I want to be.

              ---- He hasn’t finished the task yet.             ---- Well, he ought to have.

       4、省略表语。

       e.g. ---- Are you thirsty?                     ---- Yes, I am (thirsty).

       5、同时省略几个成分。

       e.g. Let’s meet at the same place as (we met) yesterday.

              ---- Have you finished your work?                     ---- (I have) Not (finished my work) yet.

(二)并列句中的省略

       两个并列分句中,后一个分句常省略与前一分句中相同的部分。

       e.g. My father is a doctor and my mother (is) a nurse.

              I study at college and my sister (studies) at high school.

(三)主从复合句中的省略

       1、主句中有一些成分被省略。

       e.g. (I’m) Sorry to hear that you are ill.

              (It is a) Pity that he missed such a good chance.

       2、省略了一个从句或从句的一部分,用so或not(切不可用it或that)代替。

       e.g. ---- Is he coming back tonight?                   ---- I think so.

              ---- Is he feeling better today?                     ---- I’m afraid not.

       这种用法常见的有:How so? Why so? Is that so? I hope so. He said so 及I suppose not. I believed not. I hope not等。(但I don’t think so比I think not更常用)。

(四)其它省略

       1、连词that的省略:

①、宾语从句中常省略连词that,但也有不能省略的情况(参看“名词性从句”等有关部分)。

       ②、在定语从句中,that在从句中作宾语时可省略。

       ③、引导主语从句、同位语从句等的连词that一般不可省略。在表语从句中偶尔可省略。

       2、不定式符号to的省略

       ①、并列的不定式可省去后面的to。

       e.g. I told him to sit down and wait for a moment.

②、某些使役动词(如let, make, have)及感官动词(如see, watch, notice, hear, feel, look at和listen to等)后面作宾语补足的不定式一定要省去to,但在被动语态中须把to复原。

e.g. ---- I saw the boy fall from the tree.            ---- The boy was seen to fall from the tree.

③、介词but前若有动词do,后面的不定式不带to。

e.g. The boy did nothing but play.

3、在某些状语从句中,从句的主语与主句主语一致时,可省去“主语 + be”部分。(参看“状语从句”有关部分)

4、连词if在部分虚拟条件句中可省略,但后面的语序有变化(参见“倒装句”有关部分)

5、主句与从句各有一些成分省略。

e.g. The sooner (you do it), the better (it will be).

插入语

       英语句子中(尤其在口语中)常插入一些单词、短语或者句子,用来补充某些含义。语法上称他们为“插入语”。

(一)插入语的类型:

       1、单词(多是副词),如:besides, however, otherwise, therefore, though等。

       e.g. She is looking fit, though. 他看起来倒是健康。

              I can, however, discuss this when I see you.

       2、短语

       e.g. China and India, for example, are neighbours.

              By the way, where are you from?

       3、句子

       e.g. He is an honest man, I believe.

              Jack, as far as I know, isn’t clever.

(二)插入语的位置

       通常插入语位于句中,并用逗号隔开。但有时,也可位于句首或句末(见上面例句)。也有时,并不用逗号隔开。

       e.g. You know that I think you are wrong. 我认为,你明白你错了。

              What on earth do you mean? 你究竟是什么意思?

(三)插入语在句中的作用

       一般来说,插入语在句中不起主要作用。如果把插入语抽去,句子的含义不大受影响。但是,有的插入语却是句子不可缺少的一部分。

       e.g. He got the news from nobody knows where. 他这消息谁也不知道是从哪儿得来的。

(四)插入语的特殊用法

       下面这种复杂的特殊疑问句,也可认为包含有“插入语”。这种疑问句(有的语法书也称为“混合疑问句”或“连锁疑问句”)常用来征询对方对某一疑问点的看法、判断、认识、猜度或请求对方重复一遍说过的话。口语中出现频率极高。常用动词有say, suppose, guess, believe, consider, think, imagine 等。

       e.g. How long did you say she would stay here?

              When do you suppose they’ll be back?

              How old did you think she was

(五)大纲中要求掌握的常用作插入语的词语

       by the way 顺便说,顺便问一下;so far 到目前为止;and so on 等等;on the contrary 相反; no wonder 不足为奇;as a matter of fact 事实上;come along 快点,来吧;in other words 换句话说;as usual 如同以往;as a result 因此,结果。

练习:

 

1. ---- Won’t you have another try?                    ---- ____.

       A. Yes, I will          B. Yes, I won’t      C. Yes, I will have         D. Yes, I won’t have

2. ---- I won’t do it any more.                    ---- ____?

       A. Why don’t               B. Why don’t do it any more        C. Why not            D. Why not do

3. ---- Do you think it will snow tomorrow?               ---- ____.

       A. No, I don’t think              B. I don’t think      C. No, I don’t so           D. I don’t think so

4. ---- Will he fail in the exam?                    ---- ____.

       A. Don’t hope to           B. Let’s hope not    C. Not hope so              D. Let’s hope not to

5. ____ usual, I have forgotten something.

       A. As                    B. As it is               C. It’s                   D. That is

6. ____ she a man, she might be elected president.

       A. If                            B. Unless               C. Was                  D. Were

7. ____ I had time, I would have played it again.

       A. If                     B. Unless               C. Had                  D. When

8. ____ it rain tomorrow, I’d stay at home.

       A. Should             B. Would               C. When                D. If

9. I like sports and ____ my brother.

       A. so                     B. so does             C. so is                 D. so likes

10. Francis, ____ born in Kentucky, lived and practised law in Missouri.

       A. was                  B. He was              C. who is                     D. although

11. ---- Aren’t you the manager?                 ---- No, and I ____.

       A. don’t want        B. don’t want to     C. don’t want to be              D. don’t

12. ---- Have you fed the dog?                    ---- No, but ____.

       A. I am                 B. I’m just going to              C. I’m            D. I’m just going

13. Your performance in the driving test didn’t reach the required standard(标准) — ____, you failed.

       A. in the end          B. after all              C. in other words   D. at the same time

14. How long ____ she would stay here?

       A. did she say              B. she said             C. did                    D. /

15. ____ could do such thing?

A. Whom do you think   B. Who do you think     

C. Do you think whom  D. Did you think who

 

KEY:

1~5 ACDBA  6~10 DCABD  11~15 CBCAB

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